Box 3.3 Principles, guidelines and other tools developed under the Convention

† One Party entered a formal objection to the Decision adopting these Guiding Principles (See UNEP/CBD/COP/6/20, paras. 294-324)
* Pronounced “agway-goo”. A holistic Mohawk term meaning “everything in creation”.
Description, Principles and Operational Guidelines for the Ecosystem Approach See Box 3.1
Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization The Guidelines are intended to assist Parties and stakeholders in the development of national legislation and policies and on contracts for benefi t-sharing. They provide guidance on the roles of focal points and national authorities; the responsibilities of providers and users; facilitating the participation of stakeholders; and on steps in the overall process, including Prior Informed Consent for access and potential elements of Mutually Agreed Terms for benefi t-sharing.
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity A framework for advising stakeholders on how they can ensure that their use of the components of biodiversity will not lead to long-term biodiversity declines, but will instead promote conservation and contribute to poverty alleviation. Applying to both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of biodiversity, the Principles and Guidelines take into account issues related to policies, laws and regulations; management of biodiversity; socio-economic conditions; and information, research and education.
Guiding Principles on Invasive Alien Species† The Guiding Principles are intended to assist governments to control invasive alien species, as an integral part of conservation and economic development. They comprise 15 principles on prevention, intentional and unintentional introduction, and mitigation of impacts.
Akwé: Kon* Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural, Environmental, and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities The guidelines provide advice on how to incorporate cultural, environmental (including biodiversity-related), and social considerations of indigenous and local communities into new or existing impact-assessment procedures, to ensure appropriate development. They support the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities in screening, scoping and development planning exercises, taking into account their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices.
Guidelines for Incorporating Biodiversityrelated Issues into Environmental Impact Assessment Legislation and / or Processes and in Strategic Environmental Assessment Impact assessment is a comprehensive process and assessment tool that promotes sustainable development and is used to ensure that projects, programmes and policies are economically viable, socially equitable and environmentally sustainable. These guidelines provide advice on the incorporation of biodiversity-related concerns into new or existing environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedures.
Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development A comprehensive instrument for managing tourism activities in an ecologically, economically and socially sustainable manner. The guidelines emphasize a consultative approach involving multiple stakeholders, and are structured around ten steps, from development of an overall vision to implementation of adaptive management programmes.
Proposals for the Design and Implementation of Incentive Measures Incentive measures serve to correct the failure of markets to properly refl ect biodiversity’s value to society. These Proposals identify and explain key elements that need to be considered when using incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. They also provide advice on the application of complementary measures for the provision of capacity-building, and for management, monitoring and enforcement.
Proposals for the Application of Ways and Means to Remove or Mitigate Perverse Incentives Perverse incentives induce unsustainable behaviours that destroys biodiversity, often as unanticipated side effects of policies designed to attain other objectives. These Proposals offer a general framework for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives, based on a three-phase approach: identifi cation of policies and practices generating perverse incentives; design and implementation of appropriate reforms; and monitoring, enforcement and evaluation of these reforms.

Source: CBD  Global Biodiversity Outlook 2 (2006),
Chapter 3: Implementing the convention on biological diversity, p.50

Related publication:
Biodiversity (CBD) homeBiodiversity A Global Outlook
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Table 3.1 Strategic Plan scorecard

Table 4.1 Prospects for achieving the targets of the framework for assessing progress towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target

Table 2.1 Headline indicators for assessing progress towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target †

Figure 1.1 Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and drivers of change

Figure 2.2 Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of change in forest cover in the past few decades

Figure 2.8 Degree of protection of terrestrial ecoregions and large marine ecosystems (all IUCN Protected Areas Management Categories combined)

Figure 2.9 Frequency distribution of terrestrial ecoregions by percentage surface area under protection

Figure 2.11 Change the Marine Trophic Index (early 1950s to the present)

Figure 2.12 Impact classification based on river channel fragmentation and water flow regulation by dams on 292 of the world’s large river systems

Figure 2.13 Estimates of forest fragmentation due to anthropogenic causes

Figure 2.14 Status and trends in biological oxygen demand (BOD) of major rivers in five regions (1980-2005)

Figure 2.16 Estimated total reactive nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere (wet and dry) (early 1990s)

Figure 2.17 Number of alien species recorded in the Nordic terrestrial, freshwater and marine environment

Figure 2.19 Intensity of ecological footprint

Figure 4.1 Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems

Box 3.3 Principles, guidelines and other tools developed under the Convention

Box 1.1 The role of biodiversity in mitigating the impacts of natural disasters

Box 1.2 Contribution of ecosystem goods and services to national economies

Box 1.3 Millennium Development Goals

Box 2.1 Headline indicators for assessing progress towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target

Box 3.1 The Ecosystem Approach

Box 3.2 Programmes of work of the Convention

Box 3.4 The biodiversity-related conventions

Box 3.5 The business case for biodiversity

Box 4.1Summary of the main findings on biodiversity of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

Box 4.2 Policy options for the 2010 Biodiversity Target and beyond

Box 4.3 Elements of a strategy to reduce biodiversity loss

Box 5.1 Checklist of key actions for 2010

Figure 1.2 Economic benefits under alternative management practices

Figure 2.1 Annual net change in forest area by region (1990–2005)

Figure 2.3 Change in live coral cover across the Caribbean basin (1977-2002)

Figure 2.4 The Living Planet Index: trends in populations of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species worldwide

Figure 2.5 Trends in European common birds in farmland and forest habitats

Figure 2.6 Red List Index for birds in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and in forest and shrubland/grassland habitats (1988-2004)

Figure 2.7 Trends in terrestrial surface under protected areas

Figure 2.10 Trends in mean trophic levels of fisheries landings (1950-2000)

Figure 2.15 Global trends in the creation of reactive nitrogen on Earth by human activity

Figure 2.18 Global Ecological Footprint

Figure 2.20 Aid activities targeting CBD objectives from 16 developed countries (1998-2003)

Figure 3.1 Participation in Convention processes

Figure 4.2 Links between food, energy and biodiversity loss

Figure 4.4 Outcomes for hunger reduction and biodiversity loss under the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios.