Highlights of recent scientific reports

These are highlights of recent scientific reports that cover, in a few questions, the essential points of the reports.

Aids Epidemic home

Even with the advances of antiretroviral therapy, AIDS is still a leading cause of death.

What is the current state of the epidemic? More...

Latest update: 1 December 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Global Warming home

The earth’s climate has already warmed up by 1.0°C since the beginning of the industrial period. What will happen when this reaches 1.5°C or 2.0°C? How can it be prevented? More...

Latest update: 24 April 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Mycotoxins home

Mycotoxins are substances produced by moulds found in food products. What are their effects and how can they be prevented? More...

Latest update: 24 May 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Mineral extraction risks home

The objective of this OECD Guide is to identify, prevent or mitigate through "due diligence" processes the risks of human rights, but also reputational and legal liability issues for companies related to mineral extraction in high risk of conflict area More...

Latest update: 3 April 2021

Summary available in [en] [fr

Acrylamide in food home

Acrylamide can be formed in many fried and baked food products. Is there a risk to health? More...

Latest update: 10 March 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Air quality in Europe home

Air quality remains an important issue for public health, the economy and the environment. More...

Latest update: 15 May 2014

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Animal testing home

Evaluating the safety of chemicals most often requires the use of tests on animals.

However, there is a strong push towards the use of alternative methods. What are these alternatives and are they effective? More...

Latest update: 20 May 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Antibiotics Research home

Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health issue. What are the prospects for the development of new drugs to fight it? More...

Latest update: 3 November 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Antibiotic resistance home

The misuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of resistant bacteria. What has caused it and how can the spread of resistance be limited? More...

Latest update: 30 September 2014

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Antimicrobial resistance home

Antimicrobial resistance both in human and veterinary medicine has reached alarming levels in most parts of the world and has now been recognized as a significant emerging threat to global public health and food security. More...

Latest update: 23 June 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Aspartame home

Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweetener, is it safe? More...

Latest update: 28 March 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Water Resources Assessments home

Water is essential for life, but humanity faces complex challenges related to increasing demand, variability of supply, widespread pollution and water-related disasters. More...

Latest update: 31 March 2021

Summary available in [en] [fr] [nl

Bee losses home

Are the causes of bee losses now well identified ? More...

Latest update: 20 March 2014

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Biochar home

Biochar can be used as fuel or as a fertilizer, and is particularly relevant to developing countries. More...

Latest update: 4 March 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Biodiversity home

The IPBES has published its first global assessement of biodiversity. What are the conclusions of this evaluation of ecosystems and the services they provide ? More...

Latest update: 20 December 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Biosecurity home

Biosecurity is concerned with animal and plant diseases, invasive species, the transmission of diseases from livestock to humans, and the effect that all of these can have of health and the environment. How can it be ensured through an integrated approach? More...

Latest update: 16 December 2019

Summary available in [en] [fr

Cadmium home

How does cadmium affect human health and the environment? More...

Latest update: 10 January 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Cancer rates and mortality, types and causes home

This is a synthesis which looks at the evolution of cancer rates and its related mortality, as well as at the main types of cancer and the main known causes and prevention means. More...

Latest update: 27 December 2016

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Chlorine Sodium Hypochlorite home

Chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are widely used for disinfection and bleaching, among other things to disinfect drinking water. It appears that the usage guidelines recommend since several years are still adequate in 2017. More...

Latest update: 5 May 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Climate Change Mitigation home

The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC was prepared by three working groups More...

Latest update: 25 August 2014

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Food & Agriculture home

Climate change poses a threat to food security; what are the strategies and policies that could help address this problem? More...

Latest update: 28 June 2017

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Climate impacts adaptation home

This is a summary of the contribution of the working group II to the IPCC’s fifth assessment, evaluating various aspects of climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. More...

Latest update: 25 August 2014

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Climate impact of shale gas home

What are the greenhouse gas emissions and climate implications of shale gas exploitation? More...

Latest update: 10 February 2015

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Estrogen-progestogen cancer risk home

Combined estrogen-progestogen pills are used both as oral contraceptives and for hormone therapy in menopausal women.

How is their use linked to cancer risks? More...

Latest update: 7 March 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Endocrine disrupting properties of pesticides home

The european regulations on pesticides have brought forward a debate on the concepts of risk and hazard in this particular context. More...

Latest update: 28 June 2016

Summary available in [en] [fr

Fukushima Consequences home

What are the causes and consequences accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant? More...

Latest update: 12 September 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Land Degradation and Desertification home

Land is an essential resource for human survival, and yet it is being degraded sometimes to the desert state through unsustainable uses. How can land conservation efforts help to reverse the current worrying trends in the state of our land resources? More...

Latest update: 16 November 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Thorium nuclear fuel home

Currently, nuclear reactors use enriched uranium as a fuel source, but uranium is relatively rare.

What are the challenges and advantages of using thorium as nuclear fuel? More...

Latest update: 15 May 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Effects of cannabis home

Are teens well informed about the risks associated with cannabis? What are those risks ? More...

Latest update: 1 April 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Endocrine disruptors risks home

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can influence the functioning of the system of hormones and receptors that regulate the body.

What are the risks associated with those chemicals? More...

Latest update: 1 May 2015

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr] [nl

Soils degradation home

Soil is a vital resource for food security, but in Europe it is being degraded by pollution, overuse, and erosion. How could soil be protected? More...

Latest update: 10 March 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Acupuncture home

Acupuncture is used more and more, is it safe and effective? More...

Latest update: 15 October 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Fluorinated gases home

Fluorinated gasses have an effect on the ozone layer and on the climate. What are the stakes related to their use in refrigeration or air conditioning? More...

Latest update: 21 November 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Chemical Mixtures home

There is increasing concern in the general public about the potential toxic effects of chemical substance mixtures (in the media often referred to as “cocktail-effects”). More...

Latest update: 17 June 2014

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Exposure to chemical mixtures home

Organisms, including humans, are exposed to mixtures of chemicals rather than to isolated, single compounds. Yet the safety of chemicals is usually assessed compound per compound.

But how to evaluate the risk of multiple possible combinations of chemicals when present in a mixture? More...

Latest update: 21 August 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Forests & agriculture land use home

How can an integrated approach to land management help meeting the needs of the world’s growing population? More...

Latest update: 2 February 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Global Biodiversity Outlook 4  home

In 2002, the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a target: reduce the loss of biodiversity by 2010.

That target was missed, and a new set of targets for 2020 were adopted. More...

Latest update: 6 November 2017

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Food Wastage home

It is estimated by the FAO that each year, one-third of produced for all food human consumption in the world is lost or wasted. This has impacts for food security and for the environment. More...

Latest update: 20 February 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Arctic Climate Change home

The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the planet, and in a region where ice and snow are so present, this has deep impacts. How will environments and populations worldwide adapt to these changes? More...

Latest update: 30 May 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr] [nl

Gluten intolerance home

What is intolerance to gluten? More...

Latest update: 11 March 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Glyphosate and cancer home

What explains such a difference in the classification of glyphosate between the evaluations conducted by IARC and EFSA? More...

Latest update: 24 April 2016

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr] [it] [nl

Aquatic environment home

Are the fresh and marine waters of Europe safe from pollution? More...

Latest update: 10 March 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) home

PFOA is a compound used in the production of materials with water- or oil-repellant properties, such as waterproof fabrics and non-stick cookware. Is its presence in finished products a risk? More...

Latest update: 31 March 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [it] [nl

Chlorpyrifos pesticide home

The approval of chlorpyrifos has recently been suspended by the european commission.

What are the EFSA conclusions that led to that suspension of its approval? More...

Latest update: 13 December 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Nanomaterials home

New scientific methods have to be developped since current methods may not be relevant to testing nanomaterials. More...

Latest update: 28 September 2016

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Fukushima accident home

What are the health impacts of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident for the workers and for the general population? More...

Latest update: 27 April 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Impacts of a 4°C global warming home

The current policies that address climate change are likely to lead to an increase in global temperature of 4°C before the end of this century.

What are the consequences of such a warming? More...

Latest update: 30 September 2013

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Chronic Diseases on Labour Practices home

What is their economic impact on labour market? More...

Latest update: 25 November 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

India Millennium Development Goals home

How did India fare in meeting the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals? More...

Latest update: 12 April 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Biological Diversity home

Key decisions adopted in 2018 by the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity in preparation for a 2050 Biodiversity Vision for the Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 report published in 2020. More...

Latest update: 5 May 2021

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr] [nl

Climate Change home

This Technical Report of AR6 summarizes the current understanding of observed climate change impacts on ecosystems and human societies as well as vulnerabilities and future risks More...

Latest update: 31 March 2022

Summary available in [en] [fr

Lyme Disease home

What is the treatment? More...

Latest update: 25 July 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Organic Food home

Demand for organic food is growing. How is it regulated in Europe and what are the potential health and environmental benefits? More...

Latest update: 27 December 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Nanomaterials home

The increased production of new manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and their use in consumer and industrial products means that workers in those industries are the first to be exposed to these materials.

How are those risks managed? More...

Latest update: 19 November 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Evaluation of endocrine disruptors home

Some chemicals can interact with the endocrine system and cause health problems. These 'endocrine disruptors' are difficult to evaluate in terms of health risks.

Are current methods adequate? More...

Latest update: 30 August 2013

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Nanosafety home

The rapid development of nanotechnology created some concerns about their possible effects on human health and safety, and environmental burden. More...

Latest update: 31 July 2015

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Neonicotinoids home

Do neonicotinoid pesticides have an effect on services provided by ecosystems? More...

Latest update: 8 March 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Aluminium exposure home

Aluminium is widely used in food packaging, appliances, as part of food additives, cosmetics, etc.

Does it pose a health risk? More...

Latest update: 24 February 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

GBO 5 home

Biological diversity (Part 1): the context of the Convention and its objectives More...

Latest update: 11 June 2021

Summary available in [en] [fr

GBO 5 home

Biological diversity (Part 2): the results of past & present action plans, objectives, actions and means at the horizon 2030 More...

Latest update: 22 July 2021

Summary available in [en] [fr

GBO 5 home

Biological diversity (Part 3): challenges and objectives for 2050 More...

Latest update: 29 July 2021

Summary available in [en] [fr

Pesticides occupational risks home

We review the scientific literature regarding the health risks associated with occupational exposure to pesticides. More...

Latest update: 7 June 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Phosphate resources home

How can phosphate resources be managed to ensure food security? More...

Latest update: 16 March 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Poly brominated flame retardant decaBDE home

Flame retardants are used in the production of many fabrics, plastics and other materials to make them more resistant to catching fire. Among these products, is decaBDE, widely used, safe to use? More...

Latest update: 23 March 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Radiological nuclear emergency home

Emergency response is, at its most, effective when the organizations and bodies that are involved are adequately prepared.

When it comes to nuclear and radiological emergencies, what are the steps needed for this preparedness? More...

Latest update: 8 August 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Aspirin & Cancer home

Various extracts on aspirin from the World Cancer Report 2020 indicate that aspirin may have important preventive effects on various forms of cancer, which are highlighted here. More...

Latest update: 2 April 2021

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Substitution of harmful chemicals home

What are the challenges that are posed by this substitution process ? More...

Latest update: 30 April 2016

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr] [nl

Marine litter home

Plastic waste is a growing issue: plastic production is projected to double over the next decade, and without a planning for the effective management of waste, the social, economic and environmental impact is also projected to increase.


Latest update: 15 February 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Hazardous chemicals home

What can be done to reduce the effects of exposure to harmful chemicals? More...

Latest update: 15 October 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Shale Gas home

New sources of gas are being increasingly being mobilized in order to meet the demand.

One such important source is shale gas, which needs for extraction a process called « hydraulic fracturing », what are the potential health and environmental risks of it? More...

Latest update: 30 September 2013

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Transgenic salmon home

Is the AquAdvantage transgenic salmon safe for human consumption and for the environment? More...

Latest update: 23 November 2015

Summary available in [en

Aspartame Reevaluation home

Aspartame is a sweetener that is in use for several decades.

The latest data has recently been reviewed by the European Food Safety Authority in the context of a systematic re-evaluation of all food additives in use in Europe. More...

Latest update: 30 November 2014

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Tattoos home

In Europe, 12% of the population has tattoos, are they safe? More...

Latest update: 17 November 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Safety of sunscreens home

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are used in sunscreens. Are they safe? More...

Latest update: 29 June 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Single-use plastics home

Reusable tableware consistently outperforms single-use tableware in all the studies and across most environmental impact categories More...

Latest update: 20 May 2021

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Benzodiazepines home

Benzodiazepines are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that are widely prescribed for insomnia, anxiety, depression, and a range of other conditions.How should they be used, considering that dependance and tolerance can develop with continued use? More...

Latest update: 26 June 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

State of the European Environment home

A comprehensive assessment of Europe’s progress towards achieving environmental sustainability. More...

Latest update: 20 September 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Sulfaxoflor Pesticide home

Sulfoxaflor is a new insecticide active ingredient that was recently registered for approval. It has been developed subsequent to the restrictions of use of neonicotinoids1, partly because of their effects on honey bees. Is this new molecule safe? More...

Latest update: 26 April 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Vaccines home

Vaccination saves millions of lives each year. How do they work and is there still progress to be made? More...

Latest update: 30 September 2014

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr] [nl

Europe Green Deal home

The European Union has published, at the end of 2019, a European Green Deal, which covers policy guidance on climate and pollution. These are the essential proposals. More...

Latest update: 7 January 2020

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

COP26 home

Highlights of the main decisions of the Glasgow Climate Pact adopted at the 26th World Climate Conference (COP26) More...

Latest update: 25 January 2022

Summary available in [en] [fr] [nl

Ozone layer depletion home

Following the implementation of the ban on CFCs, the ozone layer has been slowly recovering. What is its state and how is it linked to climate change? More...

Latest update: 27 April 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Solar Energy home

Solar power has become significantly cheaper in the last few years, and installed capacity has grown substantially in the same period. What are the advances that are needed to reduce the cost further and deploy the technology on a larger scale ? More...

Latest update: 21 November 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Cancer home

Cancer burden is rising globally, what can be done to prevent a further increase? What are the strategies that can be used for cancer prevention and early detection? More...

Latest update: 24 March 2020

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr] [nl

Electronic Cigarettes home

Electronic cigarettes are growing more and more popular. What is their effect on health?

Can they have an impact on tobacco control? More...

Latest update: 29 April 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Biofuels home

The biofuel policies in the EU have impacts on developing countries, how can policies take that into account? More...

Latest update: 5 December 2017

Summary available in [en] [fr

Palm Oil home

Palm oil is one of the most used vegetable oils, in good part because oil palm culture is cost-effective.

What is the impact of oil palm culture for biodiversity and how can it become sustainable? More...

Latest update: 26 April 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Cancer home

The most comprehensive, up-to-date science on cancer prevention, including statistics, causes, mechanisms and early prevention. More...

Latest update: 23 March 2020

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Sand Extraction home

The extensive use of sand and gravel in the production of concrete is having consequences on the environment.

What exactly is happening ? More...

Latest update: 30 October 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Tidal Energy home

Tidal energy is a predictable renewable energy source. What is the potential or this energy source? More...

Latest update: 30 August 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Pharmaceuticals environment home

The pollution of the various compartments of the environment (water, soil and air) with pharmaceutical residues is an environmental concern More...

Latest update: 26 March 2015

Summary available in [de] [en] [es] [fr

Safety of Cosmetics home

Safety assessment of cosmetic products for human health are now required from different cosmetics regulations worldwide. What do they cover? More...

Latest update: 9 February 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Fisheries and aquaculture home

The production of fish and seafood continues to grow, year after year, even if capture fisheries have stopped expanding since the late 80s.

Is this sustainable? More...

Latest update: 30 November 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Biodiversity home

Many species that are essential for biodiversity and for agricultural production, such as bees, are currently threatened. Since biodiversity underlies the food system, it is a critical issue for food security and for sustainable development. More...

Latest update: 25 April 2019

Summary available in [en] [fr

Epidemic diseases home

Key steps taken by an intercountry meeting organised by the WHO in 2019 to strengthen regional and national capacity to detect, verify and control emerging infectious diseases with epidemic and pandemic potential. More...

Latest update: 20 April 2021

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Sustainable oceans home

How can we ensure that the sustainable use of the services and resouces that the oceans offer ? More...

Latest update: 29 March 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Pollution home

Pollution is everywhere. Contaminants coming from human activity are found in the most remote reaches of the planet.

How can we ensure that the planet doesn’t degrade further? More...

Latest update: 19 December 2017

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Illicit drugs in Europe home

This report is a comprehensive overview and summary of Europe’s illicit drugs situation.

It provides insights into key trends, responses and policies. More...

Latest update: 28 September 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Air Pollution Europe home

Even if there has been great improvements in air quality and significant decreases of air emissions in the last decades, air pollution is still a problem in Europe.

What is being done to address the issue further and how effective are the measures taken? More...

Latest update: 10 February 2019

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Multiple vaccinations home

Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available, saving millions of people from illness, disability and death each year. There are public concerns on the safety and effectiveness of vaccination, are these concerns justified? More...

Latest update: 7 June 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Indonesian forests home

More forest is cut down each year in Indonesia than in any other country.

What can be done to preserve Indonesia’s forests ? More...

Latest update: 25 October 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Wastewater management home

How can we better manage our wastewater in order to relieve some of the pressure on water resources? More...

Latest update: 18 March 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Water resources home

Demand for water in the world is steadily increasing at the same time as the water supply is facing challenges from pollution, climate change, desertification, agriculture. Can these challenges be met with solutions inspired by natural processes? More...

Latest update: 18 July 2018

Summary available in [en] [fr

Health Environment Management home

Worldwide, the fraction of the global burden for both death and disease associated to environmental risks is 22%.

To what extent can environmental management better protect people’s health? More...

Latest update: 5 November 2016

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Geothermal Energy home

Geothermal energy comes from the natural heat of the earth. It is used in some areas for electricity production and heating. What is the place of geothermal energy in the energy mix? More...

Latest update: 8 April 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Wind Resources home

Wind blows everywhere on the planet, and can be converted to electricity by wind turbines.

How much wind power capacity is there in the world? More...

Latest update: 20 November 2015

Summary available in [en] [es] [fr

Children & Screens home

How are children using smartphones and tablets?

What are the potential consequences of screens and what should parents do to protect them? More...

Latest update: 15 November 2018

Summary available in [de] [en] [fr

Themes covered
Publications A-Z

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