This shows an asymmetrical distribution suggestive of publication bias
Fig. 2: Funnel plot of studies of PM10 and daily mortality used in the WHO (2000).
There is no evidence of bias in the test or the formal plot.
Fig. 3: Funnel plot of PM2.5 and daily mortality in North American studies.
There is moderate evidence of some bias. Formal test not significant (p<0.08)."
Source: WHO Regional Office for Europe
Health Aspects of Air Pollution - answers to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004), Section 5.2
Table 1. Estimated effects of air pollution on daily mortality and hospital
admissions from APHEA2 and NMMAPS studies
Table 2. Summary of time series relating coarse particulate matter to mortality
Figure 1. Direct Release of Particles
Figure 2. Indirect Formation of Particles
Figure 4. Modelled deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract using
the MPPD (Price et al., 2002) model
Fig. 1: Funnel plot of black smoke and "daily all cause mortality" in 47 studies.
Table 1. Summary estimates for studies of PM10 and daily mortality by GAM or non-GAM statistical model and by single-city or multicity study design.