Box 1: Injecting substance use and HIV/AIDS

"Globally, the percentage of persons living with HIV/AIDS who also inject psychoactive substances is 5% or 2.1 million people in more than 100 countries.

Globally, the proportion of adults living with HIV/AIDS who acquired HIV through injecting psychoactive substances is 5%, though this number varies greatly by region. It is as high as 50-90% in eastern Europe, Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific regions, and 25-50% in North America and western Europe.

Treatment and prevention of injection of psychoactive substances can help

in the prevention of the spread of HIV infection.

HIV/AIDS prevention and care should be integrated into substance dependence treatment."

Source: WHO  Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence, Summary (2004),
Global use of psychoactive substances and burden to health, Box 1., p.11

Related publication:
Psychoactive Drugs homePsychoactive Drugs Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Substances
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Table 1. Prevalence of smoking among adults and youths in selected countries

Table 3. Percentage of total global mortality and DALYs attributable to tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances

Depressants – overview of effects

Table 5. Pharmacological treatments for substance dependence

Table 2. Annual prevalence estimates of global illicit substance use, 2000-2001Table 2. Annual prevalence estimates of global illicit substance use, 2000-2001

Figure 3. A terminal button and synapse

Figure 4. Two types of chemical synapses

Table 4. Summary of psychoactive substance effectsTable 4. Summary of psychoactive substance effects

Figure 5. Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

Box 3. Risk and protective factors for substance use

Figure 1. Adult (15+) Per Capita Alcohol Consumption by Development Status

Figure 2. Mechanisms relating psychoactive substance use to health and social problems

Box 4: Types of psychotherapies and behavioural interventions

Box 1: Injecting substance use and HIV/AIDS

Box 2: Criteria for substance use dependence in ICD-10