Aral Sea

Over the last decades, diversion of rivers for irrigation has reduced its size by 60% and its volume by 80% , deeply affecting the local fishing industry and the livelihood of the population.

Aral Sea evolution between 1977 and 2006

Source: © NASA/GSFC

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Table 4.1: Precipitation distribution into surface water and groundwater components (by climate region)

Table 4.2: Selected large aquifer systems with non-renewables groundwater resources

Table 4.3: Water availability information by country (AQUASTAT, FAO 2005)

Table 4.4: Major principal sources and impacts of sedimentation

Table 4.5: Freshwater pollution sources, effects and constituents of concern

Table 4.6: Spatial and time scales within which pollution occurs and can be remediated

Table 4.7: Potential applications for reclaimed water

Figure 4.1: Global distribution of the world’s water

Figure 4.2: Schematic of the hydrologic cycle components in present-day setting

Figure 4.3: Oxygen-18 content of stream water along the main stem of large rivers

Figure 4.4: Variations in continental river runoff through most of the twentieth century (deviations from average values)

Figure 4.5: Typical hydrographs in accordance with climatic settings

Figure 4.6: Acid rain and its deposition processes

Figure 4.7: Five-year mean of the pH level in rainfall in the eastern regions of Canada and the US

Figure 4.8: Primary sources of groundwater pollution

Map 4.1

Map 4.2

Map 4.3: Groundwater abstraction rate as a percentage of mean recharge

Aral Sea