Table 1.1. Key Dryland Ecosystem Services

Provisioning Services
Goods produced or provided
by ecosystems
Regulating Services
Benefits obtained from regulation
of ecosystem processes
Cultural Services
Nonmaterial benefits obtained
from ecosystems
  • provisions derived from biological productivity: food, fiber, forage, fuelwood, and biochemicals
  • fresh water
  • water purification and regulation
  • pollination and seed dispersal
  • climate regulation (local through vegetation cover and global through carbon sequestration)
  • recreation and tourism
  • cultural identity and diversity
  • cultural landscapes and heritage values
  • indigenous knowledge systems
  • spiritual, aesthetic, and inspirational services
Supporting Services
Services that maintain the conditions for life on Earth
  • soil development
    (conservation, formation)
  • primary production
  • nutrient cycling

Source: MA  Desertification Synthesis Report (2005), p.5

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Figure 1.1. Schematic Description of Development Pathways in Drylands

Figure 1.2. Land Uses in Drylands

Figure 2.1. Comparison of Infant Mortality and GNP per Person in Drylands and Other MA Systems in Asia

Figure 4.1. Key Desertification-related Findings of the MA Scenarios

Figure 6.1. Linkages and Feedback Loops among Desertification, Global Climate Change, and Biodiversity Loss

Appendix A: Present-day Drylands and Their Categories

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Figure 7.1. Overlap of Urban Areas with the Four Dryland Categories

Box 4.1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenarios

Table 1.1. Key Dryland Ecosystem Services