Table 4.2: Selected large aquifer systems with non-renewables groundwater resources

Countries Aquifer syste, Area (km2) Estimated total volume (km3) Estimated exploitable volume (km3) Estimated annual recharge (km3) Estimated annual abstraction (km3)
Source: Jean Margat, personal communication, 2004.
(Adapted from the UNESCO Working Group on Non-Renewable Groundwater Resources, 2004).
Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Chad Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System 2,200,000 150,000 to 457,000 > 6,500 13 1.6
Algeria, Libya, Tunisia NW Sahara Aquifer System 1,000,000 60,000 1,280 14 2.5
Algeria, Libya, Niger Murzuk Basin 450,000 > 4,800 > 60 to 80 n.a. 1.75
Mali, Niger, Nigeria Iullemeden Aquifer System 500,000 10,000 to 15,000 250 to 550 50 to 80 n.a.
Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon Chad Basin Aquifer 600,000 n.a. > 170 to 350 n.a. n.a.
S.Arabia, UAR, Bahrain, Qatar Multilayer Aquifer Arabian Platform 250,000 n.a. 500? 30 13.9
Australia Great Artesian Basin 1,700,000 20,000 170 50 0.6
Russia West Siberian Artesian Basin 3,200,000 1,000,000 n.a. 55 n.a.

Source: UNESCO  The United Nations World Water Development Report 2
Section 2: Changing Natural Systems,
Chapter 4, Part 2. Nature, Variability and Availability, p.130

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Table 4.1: Precipitation distribution into surface water and groundwater components (by climate region)

Table 4.2: Selected large aquifer systems with non-renewables groundwater resources

Table 4.3: Water availability information by country (AQUASTAT, FAO 2005)

Table 4.4: Major principal sources and impacts of sedimentation

Table 4.5: Freshwater pollution sources, effects and constituents of concern

Table 4.6: Spatial and time scales within which pollution occurs and can be remediated

Table 4.7: Potential applications for reclaimed water

Figure 4.1: Global distribution of the world’s water

Figure 4.2: Schematic of the hydrologic cycle components in present-day setting

Figure 4.3: Oxygen-18 content of stream water along the main stem of large rivers

Figure 4.4: Variations in continental river runoff through most of the twentieth century (deviations from average values)

Figure 4.5: Typical hydrographs in accordance with climatic settings

Figure 4.6: Acid rain and its deposition processes

Figure 4.7: Five-year mean of the pH level in rainfall in the eastern regions of Canada and the US

Figure 4.8: Primary sources of groundwater pollution

Map 4.1

Map 4.2

Map 4.3: Groundwater abstraction rate as a percentage of mean recharge

Aral Sea