Table 4.7: Potential applications for reclaimed water

Application settings Examples
Source: Asano and Leavine, 2004.
Urban use
Unrestricted Landscape irrigation (parks, playgrounds, school yards), fire protection, construction, ornamental fountains, recreational impoundments, in-building uses (toilets, air conditioning)
Restricted-access irrigation Irrigation of areas where public access is infrequent and controlled (golf courses, cemeteries, residential, greenbelts)
Agricultural irrigation
Food crops Crops grown for human consumption and consumed uncooked
Non-food crops, food crops consumed after processing Fodder, fibre, seed crops, pastures, commercial nurseries, sod farms, commercial aquaculture
Recreational use
Unrestricted No limitations on body contact (lakes and ponds used for swimming, snowmaking)
Restricted Fishing, boating, and other non-contact recreational activities
Environmental use Artificial wetlands, enhanced natural wetlands, and sustained stream flows
Groundwater recharge Groundwater replenishment, saltwater intrusion control, and subsidence control
Industrial reuse Cooling system makeup water, process waters, boiler feed water, construction activities, and washdown waters
Potable reuse Blending with municipal water supply (surface water or groundwater)

Source: UNESCO  The United Nations World Water Development Report 2
Section 2: Changing Natural Systems,
Chapter 4, Part 2. Nature, Variability and Availability, p.149

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Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Table 4.1: Precipitation distribution into surface water and groundwater components (by climate region)

Table 4.2: Selected large aquifer systems with non-renewables groundwater resources

Table 4.3: Water availability information by country (AQUASTAT, FAO 2005)

Table 4.4: Major principal sources and impacts of sedimentation

Table 4.5: Freshwater pollution sources, effects and constituents of concern

Table 4.6: Spatial and time scales within which pollution occurs and can be remediated

Table 4.7: Potential applications for reclaimed water

Figure 4.1: Global distribution of the world’s water

Figure 4.2: Schematic of the hydrologic cycle components in present-day setting

Figure 4.3: Oxygen-18 content of stream water along the main stem of large rivers

Figure 4.4: Variations in continental river runoff through most of the twentieth century (deviations from average values)

Figure 4.5: Typical hydrographs in accordance with climatic settings

Figure 4.6: Acid rain and its deposition processes

Figure 4.7: Five-year mean of the pH level in rainfall in the eastern regions of Canada and the US

Figure 4.8: Primary sources of groundwater pollution

Map 4.1

Map 4.2

Map 4.3: Groundwater abstraction rate as a percentage of mean recharge

Aral Sea