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Air Pollution Nitrogen Dioxide


Level 3 - Source on Air Pollution

The texts in Level 3 are directy quoted from:
Source & ©: WHO  Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide and  Answer to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004) More...

  • 1. What is Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)?
  • 2. How does Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) affect human health?
    • 2.1 Which effects can be expected of long-term exposure to levels of NO2 observed currently in Europe?
    • 2.2 Is NO2 per se responsible for effects on health?
    • 2.3 Are health effects of NO2 influenced by the presence of other air pollutants?
    • 2.4 Which characteristics of individuals may influence how Nitrogen Dioxide affects their health?
    • 2.5 Is there a threshold below which nobody’s health is affected by NO2?
  • 3. How are we exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)?
    • 3.1 Which are the critical sources of NO2 responsible for health effects?
    • 3.2 What is the relationship between ambient levels and personal exposure to NO2?
    • 3.3 What is the health relevance and importance of short-term exposure to high peak levels or exposure in hot spots for NO2?
  • 4. Should current NO2 guidelines be reconsidered?
    • 4.1 Have positive impacts on public health of reductions of emissions and/or ambient concentrations of NO2 been shown?
    • 4.2 What averaging period (time pattern) is most relevant from the point of view of protecting human health?
    • 4.3 Is there new scientific evidence to justify reconsideration of the current WHO Guidelines for NO2?
  • 5. What are the uncertainties regarding this study?
    • 5.1 Uncertainties of the WHO answers, guidelines, and risk assessments
    • 5.2 Consideration of publication bias in the review
    • 5.3 Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological evidence in defining thresholds
    • 5.4 Contribution of different sources to PM-related health effects
    • 5.5 Impact of methods of analysis used in epidemiological studies
    • 5.6 Possible regional characteristics modifying the effects of air pollution
  • 6. Are certain population groups particularly vulnerable?
  • 7. General Conclusions
    • 7.1 Recommendations
    • 7.2 What other aspects of air pollution are important to address in the development of air pollution policy in Europe?
    • 7.3 Concluding remarks

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