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Air Pollution Ozone

 

Level 2 - Details on Air Pollution

  • Ozone
  • 1. What is Ozone (O3)
  • 2. How does Ozone (O3) affect human health?
    • 2.1 Effects of long-term exposure to levels of Ozone observed currently in Europe
    • 2.2 Is Ozone per se responsible for effects on health?
    • 2.3 Are health effects of Ozone influenced by the presence of other air pollutants?
    • 2.4 Characteristics of individuals that may influence how Ozone affects them
    • 2.5 Is there a threshold below which nobody’s health is affected by Ozone?
  • 3. How are we exposed to Ozone (O3)?
    • 3.1 Critical sources of Ozone responsible for health effects
    • 3.2 Relationship between ambient levels and personal exposure to Ozone
    • 3.3 Short-term exposure to high peak levels or exposure in hot spots of Ozone
  • 4. Should current O3 guidelines be reconsidered?
    • 4.1 Have positive impacts on public health of Ozone reductions been shown?
    • 4.2 Averaging period most relevant for Ozone standards to protect human health
    • 4.3 Reconsideration of the current WHO Guidelines for Ozone
  • General issues & Recommendations
  • 5. What are the uncertainties regarding this study?
    • 5.1 Uncertainties of the WHO answers, guidelines, and risk assessments
    • 5.2 Consideration of publication bias in the review
    • 5.3 Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological evidence in defining thresholds
    • 5.4 Contribution of different sources to PM-related health effects
    • 5.5 Impact of methods of analysis used in epidemiological studies
    • 5.6 Possible regional characteristics modifying the effects of air pollution
  • 6. Are certain population groups particularly vulnerable?
  • 7. General Conclusions
    • 7.1 Recommendations
    • 7.2 What other aspects of air pollution are important to address in the development of air pollution policy in Europe?
    • 7.3 Concluding remarks

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