Tobacco Active and Passive Smoking
8. Conclusions on tobacco and cancer
- 8.1 Conclusions on active smoking
- 8.2 Conclusions on passive smoking
8.1 Conclusions on active smoking
There is sufficient evidence in humans that tobacco smoking causes cancer at many sites, i.e. lung, mouth, pharynx, nose and paranasal sinuses, larynx, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, urinary tract (bladder, ureter and kidneys), cervix (neck of the uterus) and bone marrow (myeloid leukemia). There is evidence suggesting that tobacco smoking does not cause breast cancer or cancer of the uterus lining in women.
There is sufficient evidence in test animals that tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke condensates are carcinogenic.
Therefore, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1). More...