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Level 3 - Source on Air Pollution

The texts in Level 3 are directy quoted from:
Source & ©: WHO  Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide (2003) and  Answer to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004) More...

  • Particulate Matter
  • 1. What is Particulate Matter (PM)?
    • 1.1 Why does particle size matter
    • 1.2 How are particles formed?
    • 1.3 Which materials are the main components of particulate matter?
  • 2. How does Particulate Matter affect human health?
    • 2.1 Effects of long-term exposure to levels of PM observed currently in Europe
    • 2.2 Is PM per se responsible for effects on health?
    • 2.3 Which physical and chemical characteristics of PM are responsible for health effects?
    • 2.4 Are health effects of PM influenced by the presence of other gaseous air pollutants?
    • 2.5 Characteristics of individuals that may influence how PM affects them
    • 2.6 Is there a threshold below which nobody’s health is affected by PM?
  • 3. How are we exposed to Particulate Matter?
    • 3.1 Critical sources of PM or its components responsible for health effects
    • 3.2 Relationship between ambient levels and personal exposure to PM
    • 3.3 Short-term exposure to high peak levels and exposure in hot spots for PM
  • 4. Should current PM guidelines be reconsidered?
    • 4.1 Impacts on public health of PM reductions
    • 4.2 Averaging period most relevant for PM standards to protect human health
    • 4.3 Reconsideration of the current WHO Guidelines for PM
  • General issues & Recommendations
  • 5. What are the uncertainties regarding this study?
    • 5.1 Uncertainties of the WHO answers, guidelines, and risk assessments
    • 5.2 Consideration of publication bias in the review
    • 5.3 Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological evidence in defining thresholds
    • 5.4 Contribution of different sources to PM-related health effects
    • 5.5 Impact of methods of analysis used in epidemiological studies
    • 5.6 Possible regional characteristics modifying the effects of air pollution
  • 6. Are certain population groups particularly vulnerable?
  • 7. General Conclusions
    • 7.1 Recommendations
    • 7.2 What other aspects of air pollution are important to address in the development of air pollution policy in Europe?
    • 7.3 Concluding remarks

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