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Table SPM-7. (WGIII) Selected sectoral policies, measures and instruments that have shown to be environmentally effective in the respective sector in at least a number of national cases.

Sector Policiesa , measures and instruments shown to be environmentally effective Key constraints or opportunities
a) Public RD&D investment in low emission technologies have proven to be effective in all sectors.
Energy supply [4.5] Reduction of fossil fuel subsidies Resistance by vested interests may make them difficult to implement
Taxes or carbon charges on fossil fuels
Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy technologies May be appropriate to create markets for low emissions technologies
Renewable energy obligations
Producer subsidies
Transport [5.5] Mandatory fuel economy, biofuel blending and CO2standards for road transport Partial coverage of vehicle fleet may limit effectiveness
Taxes on vehicle purchase, registration, use and motor fuels, road and parking pricing Effectiveness may drop with higher incomes
Influence mobility needs through land use regulations, and infrastructure planning Particularly appropriate for countries that are building up their transportation systems
Investment in attractive public transport facilities and non-motorised forms of transport
Buildings [6.8] Appliance standards and labelling Periodic revision of standards needed
Building codes and certification Attractive for new buildings. Enforcement can be difficult
Demand-side management programmes Need for regulations so that utilities may profit
Public sector leadership programmes, including procurement Government purchasing can expand demand for energy- efficient products
Incentives for energy service companies (ESCOs) Success factor: Access to third party financing
Industry [7.9] Provision of benchmark information May be appropriate to stimulate technology uptake. Stability of national policy important in view of international competitiveness
Performance standards
Subsidies, tax credits
Tradable permits Predictable allocation mechanisms and stable price signals important for investments
Voluntary agreements Success factors include: clear targets, a baseline scenario, third party involvement in design and review and formal provisions of monitoring, close cooperation between government and industry.
Agriculture [8.6, 8.7, 8.8] Financial incentives and regulations for improved land management, maintaining soil carbon content, efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation May encourage synergy with sustainable development and with reducing vulnerability to climate change, thereby overcoming barriers to implementation
Forestry/Forests [9.6] Financial incentives (national and international) to increase forest area, to reduce deforestation, and to maintain and manage forests Constraints include lack of investment capital and land tenure issues. Can help poverty alleviation.
Land use regulation and enforcement
Waste management [10.5] Financial incentives for improved waste and wastewater management May stimulate technology diffusion
Renewable energy incentives or obligations Local availability of low-cost fuel
Waste management regulations Most effectively applied at national level with enforcement strategies

Source: IPCC Climate Change 2007: "Mitigation, Summary for Policymakers" , p20

Related publication:
Climate Change (2007) homeClimate Change 2007 Update
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Figure SPM-1. (WGI) Changes in Greenhouse Gases from Ice-core and Modern Data

Figure SPM-2. (WGI) Radiative Forcing Components

Figure SPM-3. (WGI) Changes in Temperatures, Sea Level and Snow Cover between 1850 and 2010

Figure SPM-4. (WGI) Global and Continental Temperature Change

Figure SPM-5. (WGI) Multi-model Averages and Assessed Ranges for Surface Warming

Figure SPM-6. (WGI) AOGCM Projections of Surface Temperatures

Figure SPM-7. (WGI) Projected Patterns of Precipitation Changes

Figure SPM-1. (WGII) Changes in physical and biological systems and surface temperature 1970-2004

Figure SPM-2. (WGII) Key impacts as a function of increasing global average temperature change

Figure SPM-1. (WGIII) Emissions of different greenhouse gases 1970-2004

Figure SPM-2. (WGIII) Relative global development of indicators of income, energy supply, CO2 emissions and population for 1970 to 2004

Figure SPM-3a. (WGIII) Distribution of regional per capita greenhouse gas emissions

Figure SPM-3b. (WGIII) Distribution of regional greenhouse gas emissions per unit of income

Figure SPM-4. (WGIII) Global greenhouse gas emissions for 2000, 2030 and 2100

Figure SPM-5a/5b. (WGIII) Estimated global economic mitigation potential

Figure SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated economic mitigation potential in 2030 as a function of carbon price

Figure SPM-7. (WGIII) Emissions pathways of mitigation scenarios for alternative categories of stabilization levels

Figure SPM-8. (WGIII) Relationship between stabilization scenario categories and equilibrium global mean temperature change

Figure SPM-9. (WGIII) Cumulative emissions reductions for alternative mitigation measures for 2000 to 2030 (left-hand panel) and for 2000-2100 (right-hand panel)

Global greenhouse gas emissions 1970-2004

Table SPM-1. (WGI) Observed rate of sea level rise and estimated contributions from different sources.

Table SPM-2. (WGI) Recent trends, assessment of human influence on the trend, and projections for extreme weather events for which there is an observed late 20th century trend.

Table SPM-3. (WGI) Projected globally averaged surface warming and sea level rise at the end of the 21st century.

Table SPM-1. (WGII) Examples of possible impacts of climate change due to changes in extreme weather and climate events based on projections to the mid- to late 21st century. These do not take into account any changes or developments in adaptive capacity. Examples of all entries are to be found in chapters in the full Assessment (see source at top of columns). The first two columns of the table (shaded yellow) are taken directly from the Working Group I Fourth Assessment (Table SPM-2). The likelihood estimates in Column 2 relate to the phenomena listed in Column 1.

Table SPM-4. (WGIII) Estimated global macro-economic costs in 2030a for least-cost trajectories towards different long-term stabilization levels.b,c

Table SPM-5. (WGIII) Characteristics of post-TAR stabilization scenarios [Table TS 2, 3.10]a

Table SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated global macro-economic costs in 2050 relative to the baseline for least-cost trajectories towards different long-term stabilization targetsa [3.3, 13.3]

Table SPM-7. (WGIII) Selected sectoral policies, measures and instruments that have shown to be environmentally effective in the respective sector in at least a number of national cases.

Table SPM-1. (WGIII) Global economic mitigation potential in 2030 estimated from bottom-up studies.

Table SPM-2. (WGIII) Global economic mitigation potential in 2030 estimated from top-down studies.

Table SPM-3. (WGIII) Key mitigation technologies and practices by sector. Sectors and technologies are listed in no particular order. Non-technological practices, such as lifestyle changes, which are cross-cutting, are not included in this table (but are addressed in paragraph 7 in this SPM).

Figure SPM-2. (WGII) Key impacts as a function of increasing global average temperature change

Figure SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated economic mitigation potential in 2030 as a function of carbon price

Likelihood

The Emission Scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES)

Box SPM-2 (WGIII) Mitigation potential and analytical approaches

Box SPM-3 (WGIII) Assumptions in studies on mitigation portfolios and macro-economic costs

Box SPM-4 (WGIII) Modelling induced technological change

Parties & Observers of the UNFCCC