Parties & Observers of the UNFCCC

Annex I

Parties include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992, plus countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties), including the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and several Central and Eastern European States.

Annex II

Parties consist of the OECD members of Annex I, but not the EIT Parties. They are required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emissions reduction activities under the Convention and to help them adapt to adverse effects of climate change. In addition, they have to "take all practicable steps" to promote the development and transfer of environmentally friendly technologies to EIT Parties and developing countries. Funding provided by Annex II Parties is channelled mostly through the Convention’s financial mechanism.

Non-Annex I

Parties are mostly developing countries. Certain groups of developing countries are recognized by the Convention as being especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change, including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. Others (such as countries that rely heavily on income from fossil fuel production and commerce) feel more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of climate change response measures. The Convention emphasizes activities that promise to answer the special needs and concerns of these vulnerable countries, such as investment, insurance and technology transfer.

The 48 Parties, classified as least developed countries (LDCs) by the United Nations, are given special consideration under the Convention on account of their limited capacity to respond to climate change and adapt to its adverse effects. Parties are urged to take full account of the special situation of LDCs when considering funding and technology-transfer activities.

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Related publication:
Climate Change homeClimate Change 2007 Update
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Figure SPM-1. (WGI) Changes in Greenhouse Gases from Ice-core and Modern Data

Figure SPM-2. (WGI) Radiative Forcing Components

Figure SPM-3. (WGI) Changes in Temperatures, Sea Level and Snow Cover between 1850 and 2010

Figure SPM-4. (WGI) Global and Continental Temperature Change

Figure SPM-5. (WGI) Multi-model Averages and Assessed Ranges for Surface Warming

Figure SPM-6. (WGI) AOGCM Projections of Surface Temperatures

Figure SPM-7. (WGI) Projected Patterns of Precipitation Changes

Figure SPM-1. (WGII) Changes in physical and biological systems and surface temperature 1970-2004

Figure SPM-2. (WGII) Key impacts as a function of increasing global average temperature change

Figure SPM-1. (WGIII) Emissions of different greenhouse gases 1970-2004

Figure SPM-2. (WGIII) Relative global development of indicators of income, energy supply, CO2 emissions and population for 1970 to 2004

Figure SPM-3a. (WGIII) Distribution of regional per capita greenhouse gas emissions

Figure SPM-3b. (WGIII) Distribution of regional greenhouse gas emissions per unit of income

Figure SPM-4. (WGIII) Global greenhouse gas emissions for 2000, 2030 and 2100

Figure SPM-5a/5b. (WGIII) Estimated global economic mitigation potential

Figure SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated economic mitigation potential in 2030 as a function of carbon price

Figure SPM-7. (WGIII) Emissions pathways of mitigation scenarios for alternative categories of stabilization levels

Figure SPM-8. (WGIII) Relationship between stabilization scenario categories and equilibrium global mean temperature change

Figure SPM-9. (WGIII) Cumulative emissions reductions for alternative mitigation measures for 2000 to 2030 (left-hand panel) and for 2000-2100 (right-hand panel)

Global greenhouse gas emissions 1970-2004

Table SPM-1. (WGI) Observed rate of sea level rise and estimated contributions from different sources.

Table SPM-2. (WGI) Recent trends, assessment of human influence on the trend, and projections for extreme weather events for which there is an observed late 20th century trend.

Table SPM-3. (WGI) Projected globally averaged surface warming and sea level rise at the end of the 21st century.

Table SPM-1. (WGII) Examples of possible impacts of climate change due to changes in extreme weather and climate events based on projections to the mid- to late 21st century. These do not take into account any changes or developments in adaptive capacity. Examples of all entries are to be found in chapters in the full Assessment (see source at top of columns). The first two columns of the table (shaded yellow) are taken directly from the Working Group I Fourth Assessment (Table SPM-2). The likelihood estimates in Column 2 relate to the phenomena listed in Column 1.

Table SPM-4. (WGIII) Estimated global macro-economic costs in 2030a for least-cost trajectories towards different long-term stabilization levels.b,c

Table SPM-5. (WGIII) Characteristics of post-TAR stabilization scenarios [Table TS 2, 3.10]a

Table SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated global macro-economic costs in 2050 relative to the baseline for least-cost trajectories towards different long-term stabilization targetsa [3.3, 13.3]

Table SPM-7. (WGIII) Selected sectoral policies, measures and instruments that have shown to be environmentally effective in the respective sector in at least a number of national cases.

Table SPM-1. (WGIII) Global economic mitigation potential in 2030 estimated from bottom-up studies.

Table SPM-2. (WGIII) Global economic mitigation potential in 2030 estimated from top-down studies.

Table SPM-3. (WGIII) Key mitigation technologies and practices by sector. Sectors and technologies are listed in no particular order. Non-technological practices, such as lifestyle changes, which are cross-cutting, are not included in this table (but are addressed in paragraph 7 in this SPM).

Figure SPM-2. (WGII) Key impacts as a function of increasing global average temperature change

Figure SPM-6. (WGIII) Estimated economic mitigation potential in 2030 as a function of carbon price


The Emission Scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES)

Box SPM-2 (WGIII) Mitigation potential and analytical approaches

Box SPM-3 (WGIII) Assumptions in studies on mitigation portfolios and macro-economic costs

Box SPM-4 (WGIII) Modelling induced technological change

Parties & Observers of the UNFCCC