Contaminación del Aire Dióxido de Nitrógeno


Nivel 2 - Detalles sobre la Contaminación del Aire en inglés

  • 1. What is Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)?
  • 2. How does Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) affect human health?
    • 2.1 Which effects can be expected of long-term exposure to levels of NO2 observed currently in Europe?
    • 2.2 Is NO2 per se responsible for effects on health?
    • 2.3 Are health effects of NO2 influenced by the presence of other air pollutants?
    • 2.4 Which characteristics of individuals may influence how Nitrogen Dioxide affects their health?
    • 2.5 Is there a threshold below which nobody’s health is affected by NO2?
  • 3. How are we exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)?
    • 3.1 Which are the critical sources of NO2 responsible for health effects?
    • 3.2 What is the relationship between ambient levels and personal exposure to NO2?
    • 3.3 What is the health relevance and importance of short-term exposure to high peak levels or exposure in hot spots for NO2?
  • 4. Should current NO2 guidelines be reconsidered?
    • 4.1 Have positive impacts on public health of reductions of emissions and/or ambient concentrations of NO2 been shown?
    • 4.2 What averaging period (time pattern) is most relevant from the point of view of protecting human health?
    • 4.3 Is there new scientific evidence to justify reconsideration of the current WHO Guidelines for NO2?
  • 5. What are the uncertainties regarding this study?
    • 5.1 Uncertainties of the WHO answers, guidelines, and risk assessments
    • 5.2 Consideration of publication bias in the review
    • 5.3 Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological evidence in defining thresholds
    • 5.4 Contribution of different sources to PM-related health effects
    • 5.5 Impact of methods of analysis used in epidemiological studies
    • 5.6 Possible regional characteristics modifying the effects of air pollution
  • 6. Are certain population groups particularly vulnerable?
  • 7. General Conclusions
    • 7.1 Recommendations
    • 7.2 What other aspects of air pollution are important to address in the development of air pollution policy in Europe?
    • 7.3 Concluding remarks

Otros artículos que pueden ser de su interés...
Calidad del aire en Europa inicio
La calidad del aire sigue siendo una cuestión importante para la salud pública, la economía y el medio ambiente.
Calidad del aire interior inicio
Qué contaminantes del aire interior suscitan preocupación? ¿Cómo se puede determinar la calidad del aire interior?
Enfermedades respiratorias inicio
¿Qué factores influyen en la probabilidad de desarrollar dichas enfermedades?
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