Box TS.5, Figure 1 - Simulations and reconstructions of the climate of the last millennium.

Simulations and reconstructions of the climate of the last millennium

Box TS.5, Figure 1 - Last-millennium simulations and reconstructions. (a) 850–2000 PMIP3/CMIP5 radiative forcing due to volcanic, solar and well-mixed green- house gases. Different colours illustrate the two existing data sets for volcanic forcing and four estimates of solar forcing. For solar forcing, solid (dashed) lines stand for reconstruction variants in which background changes in irradiance are (not) considered; (b) 850–2000 PMIP3/CMIP5 simulated (red) and reconstructed (shading) Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature changes. The thick red line depicts the multi-model mean while the thin red lines show the multi-model 90% range. The overlap of reconstructed temperatures is shown by grey shading; all data are expressed as anomalies from their 1500–1850 mean and smoothed with a 30-year filter. Note that some reconstructions represent a smaller spatial domain than the full NH or a specific season, while annual temperatures for the full NH mean are shown for the simulations. (c), (d), (e) and (f) Arctic and North America annual mean temperature, and Europe and Asia June, July and August (JJA) temperature, from 950 to 2000 from reconstructions (black line), and PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations (thick red, multi-model mean; thin red, 90% multi-model range). All red curves are expressed as anomalies from their 1500–1850 mean and smoothed with a 30-year filter. The shaded envelope depicts the uncertainties from each reconstruction (Arctic: 90% confidence bands, North American: ±2 standard deviation. Asia: ±2 root mean square error. Europe: 95% confidence bands). For comparison with instrumental record, the Climatic Research Unit land station Temperature (CRUTEM4) data set is shown (yellow line). These instrumental data are not necessarily those used in calibration of the reconstructions, and thus may show greater or lesser correspondence with the reconstructions than the instrumental data actually used for calibration; cutoff timing may also lead to end effects for smoothed data shown. All lines are smoothed by applying a 30-year moving average. Map shows the individual regions for each reconstruction. {5.3.5; Table 5.A.1; Figures 5.1, 5.8, 5.12}

Source: IPCC  Climate Change 2013: Technical Summary, p.78

Related publication:
Climate Change homeClimate Change: 2013 IPCC Update
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

Box TS.1 - Treatment of Uncertainty

Figure TS.1 - Multiple complementary indicators of a changing global climate

Figure TS.2 - Change in surface temperature over 1901–2012

Figure TS.3 - Ice loss in Greenland and Antarctica

TFE.1, Figure 1 - Changes in sea surface salinity

TFE.1, Figure 2 - Changes in precipitation over 20th century

TFE.1, Figure 3 - Projected changes in precipitation, 21st century

TFE.2, Figure 1 - Comparison of observed trends with previous projections.

TFE.2, Figure 2 - Compilation of paleo sea level data

Figure TS.4 - Annual anthropogenic CO2 emissions

Figure TS.5 - Atmospheric composition.

Figure TS.6 - Radiative forcing and Effective radiative forcing of climate change during the Industrial Era

Figure TS.7 - Radiative forcing of climate change during the Industrial Era shown by emitted components from 1750 to 2011

Figure TS.8 - (Upper) Global anthropogenic present-day emissions weighted by the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature change Potential

Figure TS.9 - Global temperatures with and without anthropogenic forcing

Box TS.3, Figure 1 - Trends in temperature changes for the last few decades.

TFE.3, Figure 1 - Observed globally and annually averaged CO2 concentrations in parts per million since 1950 compared with projections from the previous IPCC assessments. Observed global annual CO2 concentrations are shown in dark blue.

Figure TS.10 - Likely ranges of warming trends.

TFE.4, Figure 1 - The Earth’s energy budget from 1970 through 2011

TFE.5, Figure 1 - Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

Figure TS.11 - Simulated and observed 1951–2011 trends in the Southern Annular Mode index by season

Figure TS.12 - Comparison of observed and simulated change in the climate system, at regional scales and global scales

Box TS.4, Figure 1 - Summary of how well the current-generation climate models simulate important features of the climate of the 20th century

Box TS.5, Figure 1 - Simulations and reconstructions of the climate of the last millennium.

Box TS.6, Figure 1 - Modeled patterns of temperature and precipitation changes.

TFE.6, Figure 1 - Climate sensitivity

TFE.6, Figure 2 - Climate response

Figure TS.13 - Decadal prediction forecast quality of several climate indices.

Figure TS.14 - Synthesis of near-term projections of global mean surface air temperature

Figure TS.15 - Annual mean temperature change

Figure TS.16 - Maps of multi-model results for the scenarios in 2081–2100 of average percent change in mean precipitation

Figure TS.17 - Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent in September over the late 20th century and the whole 21st century for the scenarios

Figure TS.18 - Northern hemisphere snow cover and permafrost area over the 21st century

Figure TS.19 - Compatible fossil fuel emissions simulated by the CMIP5 models for the four RCP scenarios

Figure TS.20 - Time series (model averages and minimum to maximum ranges) and maps of multi-model surface ocean pH

TFE.7, Figure 1 - Percentage of CO2 pulse remaining in the atmosphere after a number of years

TFE.7, Figure 2 - Comparison of carbon cycle feedback metrics between the ensemble of seven General Circulation Models

Figure TS.21 - Projections of global mean sea level

Figure TS.22 - Projections from process-based models of global mean sea level

Figure TS.23 - Sea level rise in different scenarios

TFE.8, Figure 1 - Temperature increases in different scenarios

Figure TS.24 - Future change in monsoon statistics between the present-day (1986–2005) and the future (2080–2099)

Figure TS.25 - Standard deviation in CMIP5 multi-model ensembles of sea surface temperature variability over the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

Figure TS.26 - Projected changes in tropical cyclone statistics.

TFE.9, Figure 1 - Global projections of the occurrence of extreme events

Table TS.1 - Projected change in global mean surface air temperature and global mean sea level rise for the mid- and late 21st century relative to the reference period of 1986–2005.

Table TS.2 - Overview of projected regional changes and their relation to major climate phenomena.

TFE.9, Table 1 - Extreme weather and climate events: Global-scale assessment of recent observed changes, human contribution to the changes and projected further changes for the early (2016–2035) and late (2081–2100) 21st century