CO2 Capture and Storage
4. How can CO2 be transported once it is captured?
- 4.1 What are the methods of CO2 transport?
- 4.2 How expensive is CO2 transport?
4.1 What are the methods of CO2 transport?
Except when the source is located directly over the storage
needs to be transported to the storage site. There are several
ways of doing this.
Concentrated streams of
can safely be transported through pipelines at
high pressure. Such pipelines have been used in the USA since
the early 1970s for
enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
and are currently the main method for transporting
CO2. Experience over the past decades, mainly with
gas pipelines, has shown that very few accidents occur and that
risks associated with appropriately designed pipelines are
can also be transported as a liquid, in ships
similar to those transporting
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
In liquid form,
could technically also be transported on road tankers or
railcars in insulated tanks at low temperature and at much lower
pressure than in pipelines, but this option is not economical
for large scale CO2 transport.
4.2 How expensive is CO2 transport?
For both pipeline and marine transportation of
costs depend on the distance and the quantity transported. For
pipelines costs are higher when they are routed offshore or
across heavily congested areas, mountains or rivers.
Fluctuations in the price of steel would also have an impact on
the cost of pipeline transport. For a distance of 250 km (about
155 miles), the estimated cost of pipeline transport typically
ranges from 1-8 US$ per tonne CO2.
In ship transport, costs depend on characteristics such as
tanker volume. If transport by ship is possible, it is generally
cheaper than pipeline transport for distances over 1000 km and
for amounts of CO2 smaller than a few million tonnes
per year (see