CO2 Capture and Storage
7. How can CO2 be stored in other materials?
- 7.1 Can CO2 be transformed and stored in solid form?
- 7.2 What are the industrial uses of CO2 and can they reduce CO2 emissions?
7.1 Can CO2 be transformed and stored in solid form?
can be converted virtually permanently into a solid form through
chemical reactions with extracted minerals that are naturally
occurring, such as calcium oxide (CaO) to produce limestone
(CaCO3) or magnesium oxide (MgO) to produce dolomite
(MgCO3). As a result of the reaction, no
CO2 would be released into the
atmosphere, there would be
little need to monitor the disposal sites, and the associated
risks would be very low. Large amounts of energy and minerals,
however, are required for this technology. Greater improvements
would be needed before it could become a real option.
7.2 What are the industrial uses of CO2 and can they reduce CO2 emissions?
in industrial chemical processes in industry is technically
possible, but it has only modest potential for actually reducing
emissions. The total industrial use of 120 MtCO2 per
year is very small compared to the emissions induced by human
activities (over 30 000 MtCO2 per year). Two thirds
are used to produce urea,
which is used in the production of fertilizers and other
products. Other uses include: horticulture, refrigeration, food
packaging, welding, beverages, and fire extinguishers.
In addition, most of these industrial products release their
content back into the
atmosphere after few days
or months. Only a small proportion – roughly 20 MtCO2
per year – is stored for up to several decades and only up to 1
MtCO2 per year for a century or more. Therefore,
CO2 capture for industrial uses could only bring an
insignificant contribution to