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Home » DINP-DIDP » Level 2 » Question 4

Phthalate Di-isodecyl & Di-isononyl phthalates

4. How can humans be exposed to DIDP and DINP?

  • 4.1 How can workers be exposed to DIDP and DINP?
  • 4.2 How can consumers be exposed to DIDP and DINP?
  • 4.3 What are the estimated overall exposures to DIDP and DINP

4.1 How can workers be exposed to DIDP and DINP?

Exposure to DIDP or DINP in certain workplaces may occur by skin contact or by inhalation. Skin may come into contact with DIDP, or with formulations or end products containing it, but absorption is very low through the skin. Exposure through inhalation is due to air-borne particles carrying DIDP or DINP, since these phthalates are not present in vapour form at room temperatures.

The United Kingdom and Sweden are among the few countries which have set Occupational Exposure Limits for DIDP and DINP present in air.

In PVC formulations, the typical amount of DIDP or DINP is about 20 - 40% but may be as high as 55%. In end products, the amount varies greatly from less than 1% to more than 50%. More...

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4.2 How can consumers be exposed to DIDP and DINP?

Exposure of consumers to DIDP and DINP can occur from their use as a plasticizer in flexible PVC end products (such as synthetic leather and cables and wires) as well as in several non-PVC products (such as paints and rubbers). Consumer exposure may also occur through food, water and beverages because of contamination from packaging and processing equipment containing DIDP or DINP.

DINP is found in toys and child care articles and DIDP has been used in toys in the past. 1

Internal exposure to DIDP or DINP of adults, infants and newborns were calculated by estimating how much DIDP and DINP can be absorbed into the bloodstream from swallowing them or breathing them in, taking into account differences between children and adults.

Sources of DIDP and DINP considered were building materials, furniture, car and public transport interiors, gloves, clothes and footwear, food and food-related uses. The calculated internal exposures were as follows: More...

Consumer exposure to DIDP and DINP

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4.3 What are the estimated overall exposures to DIDP and DINP

The total calculated internal exposures to DIDP and DINP for adults and infants are as follows:

Internal exposure for adults, children and infants. More...

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