Occupational exposure to
DINP may occur:
- by skin contact with pure DINP, or mixtures (formulations)
or end products containing it,
- by inhalation (vapours and aerosols)
Oral exposure is not considered to be a significant route of
exposure under normal working practices.
Few countries have defined Occupational Exposure Limits for
DINP. In the UK, the HSE
(1997) indicates an occupational exposure standard (8-hour TWA)
of 5 mg/m3 for DINP 2 (CAS 28553-12-0). In Sweden, KEMI (1997)
indicates a “level limit value” of 3 mg/m3 and a “short-term
value” of 5 mg/m3 which apply to
phthalates such as DINP for
which no specific limit values have been defined.
Workers may be exposed to
DINP at different
representative stages of its life cycle. The following exposure
scenarios are considered:
1. manufacture of DINP
(reactor opening, drumming, pumping into tanks, cleaning,
2. manufacture of products containing
DINP as a plasticizer or a
solvent (adding, mixing, processing e.g. calendering, extruding,
injection moulding, etc.)
3. use of end products containing
DINP (use of e.g. coatings,
adhesives or inks).
In PVC formulations, the
typical amount of DINP is
about 20 - 40% but may go up to 55%. In end products, the amount
varies greatly from less than 1% to more than 50%.
In view of the very low
DINP by the dermal route, a
maximum dermal exposure of 5 mg/cm2 is intentionally assumed for
all scenarios. Actual levels of dermal exposure are much lower
in most occupational circumstances.
exposure is resumed in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Inhalation occupational exposure
Due to the very low vapour pressure of
DINP, exposure by
inhalation is in fact to