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The state and sustainability of Fisheries and Aquaculture

 

Glossary over The state and sustainability of Fisheries and Aquaculture

Adaptation

Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment.

Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation. (Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
 Glossary )

Amino acid(s)

An amino acid molecule has the general formula NH2CHRCOOH, where "R" is any one of a number of side groups. Amino acids are building blocks (small molecules that link together to form long chains) of proteins.

There are 20 amino acids found in proteins, called primary amino acids. Non-essential amino acids are those made by the human body, while essential amino acids are only obtained from protein in the foods that we eat. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Antibiotics

A class of natural or man-made substances, such as penicillin, that kill or inhibit the growth of some micro-organisms. (Source: GreenFacts, based on CoRIS, Glossary  )

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Antimicrobial

An antimicrobial is a chemical substance which, at low concentrations, exerts an action against micro-organisms and destroys them or inhibits their growth.

Examples of antimicrobials targeting bacteria include antibiotics that act against infections in humans or animals and biocides such as disinfectants and preservatives. (Source: GreenFacts)

Aquaculture

Breeding and rearing of fish, shellfish, or plants in ponds, enclosures, or other forms of confinement in fresh or marine waters for the direct harvest of the product. (Source: MA   Glossary )

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity reflects the number, variety and variability of living organisms.

It includes diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity). (Source: GreenFacts)

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Biofuels

Biofuels are non-fossil fuels. They are energy carriers that store the energy derived from organic materials (biomass), including plant materials and animal waste.

They may be solid, such as fuelwood, charcoal and wood pellets; liquid, such as ethanol, biodiesel and pyrolysis oils; or gaseous, such as biogas. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Capture fishery

Capture fishery refers to all kinds of harvesting of naturally occurring living resources in both marine and freshwater environments. (Source: GreenFacts )

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Climate change

The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate.

It is also defined by the United Nations Convention on Climate Change as “change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods” (Source: CoRIS glossary  )

Cod

A large fish that often lives close to the seafloor.

Cod have firm white flesh; for centuries, cod have been important to people of many nations as a food fish.

The largest kind of cod fish is the Atlantic cod, an important food fish of northern Atlantic waters.

The Atlantic cod has a distinctive elongated hairlike structure called a "barbell" that hangs from its chin; it also has three dorsal fins, and two anal fins. The Atlantic cod may reach 2 meters in length, and its average weight is about 30 kilograms. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Collagen

A natural protein that forms connective tissue and provides strength, resilience, and support to the skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, and other parts of the body.

Collagen is the main structural protein of the skin. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Community

When referring to humans, a community is defined as:

A collection of human beings who have something in common.

A local community is a fairly small group of people who share a common place of residence and a set of institutions based on this fact, but the word ‘community’ is also used to refer to larger collections of people who have something else in common (e.g., national community, donor community).

When referring to other living organisms, a community is defined as:

An assemblage of species occurring in the same space or time, often linked by biotic interactions such as competition or predation. (Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Glossary )

Crustacean

Any of a large group of mostly aquatic animals, including crabs, lobsters, and shrimps, having hard shells, jointed bodies, and antennae. (Source: GreenFacts )

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Dental erosion

Dental erosion is the loss of enamel and dentine from the tooth as a result of direct acid attack.

It is caused by excessive exposure to acid substances – such as those present in fruit juices and fizzy drinks – that are different from those produced by bacteria involved in the process of dental caries (decay).

Dental erosion is irreversible.

The most common teeth affected by dental erosion are the upper front teeth, although all teeth can be affected. Teeth that have been eroded look glassy, can appear short, and have uneven tips that are easily chipped away. (Source: GreenFacts, based on The Dental Centre Dental Erosion  )

Developmental effects

Effects in the developing offspring due to exposure before conception (either parent), prenatally, or postnatally to the time of sexual maturation. Developmental effects may be expressed at any time in the life span of the organism. Developmental effects are a subset of reproductive effects. (Source: CSIRO CSIRO biological effects and safety of EMR Glossary  )

Disinfectant(s)

A chemical or physical process that kills or inactivates microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (Source: US EPA US EPA Drinking Water Glossary  )

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Ecosystem(s)

The complex system of plant, animal, fungal, and microorganism communities and their associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.

Ecosystems have no fixed boundaries; instead their parameters are set to the scientific, management, or policy question being examined. Depending upon the purpose of analysis, a single lake, a watershed, or an entire region could be considered an ecosystem. (Source: US EPA Glossary of Climate Change Terms   )

Enzyme(s)

A protein that encourages a biochemical reaction, usually speeding it up. Organisms could not function if they had no enzymes. (Source: NHGRI NHGRI Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms  )

Fish meal

A high-protein animal feed supplement made by cooking, pressing, drying, and grinding fish or shellfish. (Source: NOAA  Glossary )

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Fish oil

An oil extracted from body (body oil) or liver (liver oil) of fish and marine mammals; mostly a byproduct of fish meal production. (Source: NOAA  Glossary )

Fish stock

The population or [total mass] of a fishery resource. Such stocks are usually identified by their location. They can be, but are not always, genetically discrete from other stocks. (Source: MA  Glossary )

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Fishery

A particular kind of fishing activity, e.g., a trawl fishery or a particular species targeted, e.g., a cod fishery or salmon fishery. (Source: MA  Glossary )

Flag of convenience

The flag of a country with easy or lax maritime regulations and low fees and taxes, flown by ships that register their vessels in such countries, even though their ownership and main cruising areas are elsewhere. (Source: Home-Based Travel Agent Resource Center Dictionary  )

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Food & Agriculture Organization

"The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information. We help developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices and ensure good nutrition for all. Since our founding in 1945, we have focused special attention on developing rural areas, home to 70 percent of the world's poor and hungry people. FAO's activities comprise four main areas:

  • Putting information within reach
  • Sharing policy expertise.
  • Providing a meeting place for nations.
  • Bringing knowledge to the field. "
Governance

The process of regulating human behavior in accordance with shared objectives. The term includes both governmental and nongovernmental mechanisms. (Source: MA Glossary  )

Haddock

The haddock is a sea fish belonging to the cod family, but it is smaller than the Atlantic cod.

This groundfish, also known as offshore hake, lives at depths of between 40 and 300 metres and is found mostly in the northern hemisphere.

Haddock is highly valued as a food fish. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Hake

Any of various saltwater fish of related to the cod family, found in northern European, African, and American waters.

They have silvery elongated bodies and grow up to 1 m in length. They have two dorsal fins and one long anal fin.

The silver hake or whiting is an important food fish.

The hake is part of the Gadiformes group. (Source: GreenFacts, based on Tiscali   )

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Inland waters

Inland waters are permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of flooded conditions.

Inland waters include rivers, lakes, floodplains, reservoirs, wetlands, and inland saline systems. (Source: MA Synthesis Report )

Iodine

Iodine is a trace element that is necessary for the body to produce the thyroid hormone.

It is a bluish-black, lustrous nonmetallic solid element that mainly occurs in nature under its stable form, iodine-127. Stable iodine is naturally present for instance in seaweeds, sponges, and shell fish. It is also artificially added to salt.

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Nutrients

The approximately 20 chemical elements known to be essential for the growth of living organisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and carbon. (Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Glossary   )

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pH

pH is a measure of the concentration of protons (H+) in a solution and, therefore, its acidity or alkalinity. The concept was introduced by S.P.L. Sørensen in 1909. The p stands for the German "Potenz", meaning power or concentration, and the H for the hydrogen ion (H+). In layman's terms , the "pH" value is an approximate number between 0 and 14 that indicates whether a solution is acidic (pH < 7), basic (pH > 7) or neither (pH = 7) [neutral]. (Source: GreenFacts )

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Population

A group or number of people living within a specified area or sharing similar characteristics (such as occupation or age). (Source: ATSDR Glossary of Terms  )

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Poverty

The pronounced deprivation of well-being.

Income poverty refers to a particular formulation expressed solely in terms of per capita or household income. (Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Glossary )

Protein

A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order, formed according to genetic information.

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Regionalization

Regionalization is the tendency to form regions or the process of doing so.

When used in opposition to globalization, this often means a world that is less connected, with a stronger regional focus. (Source: GreenFacts)

Resilience

Refers to the amount of disturbance or stress that an ecosystem can absorb and still remain capable of returning to its pre- disturbance state. (Source: GreenFacts, based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Glossary )

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Subsidy

Financial assistance (often from governmental bodies) to businesses, citizens, or institutions to encourage a desired activity deemed beneficial. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Sustainability

A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs.

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The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection

The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) is an advisory body, established in 1969, that advises the United Nations (UN) system on the scientific aspects of marine environmental protection.

At present GESAMP is jointly sponsored by nine UN organizations with responsibilities relating to the marine environment, and they utilize GESAMP as a mechanism for coordination and collaboration among them. GESAMP functions are to conduct and support marine environmental assessments, to undertake in-depth studies, analyses, and reviews of specific topics, and to identify emerging issues regarding the state of the marine environment. GESAMP itself today consists of 16 experts, drawn from a wide range of relevant disciplines, who act in an independent and individual capacity. Studies and assessments are usually carried out by dedicated working groups, most of whose members are not sitting members of GESAMP but part of the broader GESAMP network.

GESAMP's UN sponsors: IMO, FAO, UNESCO-IOC, WMO, IAEA, UN, UNEP, UNIDO, UNDP.GESAMP

Source: (Source: www.gesamp.org/about  )

The World Ocean Review

The World Ocean Review series is published by maribus, a non-profit company founded by the mareverlag publishing house. maribus is dedicated to raising the public’s awareness of interrelationships in marine science, thus contributing to a more effective protection of the seas. Our publications are not for sale, but are made available free of charge.

Contributions to the publications have been received from numerous partners and researchers whose many years’ involvement with the marine environment has put them at the cutting edge of science:

  • a team of experts from the Cluster of Excellence “The Future Ocean”, an initiative supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) comprising more than 200 scientists representing diverse disciplines
  • the International Ocean Institute (IOI) founded by Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1972
  • mare – the magazine of the seas

The purpose of our publications is to present scientifically robust knowledge in a form accessible to any reader, and thus to serve all those who wish to engage actively and knowledgably in debate on the issues surrounding marine science. (Source: http://worldoceanreview.com/en/  )

Tuna

A group of large predatory fish species related to the mackerel living in the open ocean.

Many tuna species are important food fish for people. Tunas are the single most important resource exploited in the high seas.

Examples of tuna species include the large bluefin tuna, the yellowfin tuna, the albacore tuna, the bigeye tuna, and the skipjack tuna. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Vaccination

Method to improve a person’s immunity to a particular infectious disease. It involves the administration (oral intake or injection) of a vaccine, which is a weakened, dead or inactivated form of the pathogen responsible for the infection. This stimulates the immune system which produces antibodies (Source: GreenFacts)

Vitamins

Vitamins are a group of organic micronutrients that are required by the body for healthy growth, development and immune system functioning.

Certain vitamins are produced by the body but most vitamins are obtained from food or from manufactured dietary supplements. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Vulnerability (in health science)

The likelihood of being unusually severely affected by a substance either as a result of susceptibility to the effects of these substances or as a result of a greater than average [exposure]. (Source: WHO Europe  Answers to follow-up questions from CAFE )


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