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Drug-resistant Tuberculosis

 

Glossary over Drug-resistant Tuberculosis

Absorption

The process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs. (Source: ATSDR Glossary of Terms  )

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Alcohol

The term alcohol refers to a family of chemicals that occur widely in nature and are mass-produced for use in antifreezes, fuels and some manufacturing processes.

Alcohol is commonly used to refer to alcohol-containing drinks such as wine, beer and spirits. In this case the alcohol, ethanol, has been produced by a process called fermentation. Consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol can lead to drunkenness and may be harmful to health. (Source: GreenFacts)

Antibiotics

A class of natural or man-made substances, such as penicillin, that kill or inhibit the growth of some micro-organisms. (Source: GreenFacts, based on CoRIS, Glossary  )

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Bacteria

Bacteria are a major group of micro-organisms that live in soil, water, plants, organic matter, or the bodies of animals or people. They are microscopic and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell structure.

Some bacteria cause diseases such as tetanus, typhoid fever, pneumonia, syphilis, cholera, and tuberculosis.

Bacteria play a role in the decomposition of organic matter and other chemical processes. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance occurs when a cell or bacteria becomes less sensitive to a specific drug. The clinical consequence of this is the decreased effectiveness of that drug to cure a disease or to improve a patient's symptoms.

Respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria are the leading killers among the infectious diseases. In recent years, all of these diseases have become resistant to first-line drugs. (Source: GreenFacts )

Epidemic

The widespread outbreak of a disease, or a large number of cases of a disease in a single community or relatively small area. (Source: CoRIS Glossary  )

Exposure

Contact of the cells of an organism with a substance, micro-organism or radiation. In the case of humans, this may involve contact with a substance or agent by swallowing, breathing, or through the skin or eyes. Exposure may be short-term [acute exposure], of intermediate duration, or long-term [chronic exposure].

Exposure can be divided into external and internal.

External exposure refers to the whole dose to which an organism is exposed.

Internal exposure refers only to that fraction of the initial chemical dose that is absorbed and distributed throughout the body via systemic circulation. (Source: GreenFacts)

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Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance

”In 1994, due to lack of standardized data on anti-TB drug resistance and in an effort to estimate the global prevalence of resistance, WHO, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and other partners developed the Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance  (DRS).

The project assembled a network of Supranational Reference Laboratories (SRLN- Supranational Laboratory Network) to aid National Reference Laboratories in conducting quality assured drug susceptibility testing in conjunction with national or area anti-TB drug resistance surveillance. The project is now expanding implementation of surveys to new countries prioritizing countries with a high burden of TB, or suspected high prevalence of MDR, incorporating more rigorous surveillance of retreatment cases to determine prevalent resistance patterns, repeating surveys every three to five years in order to observe trends, and expanding objectives of surveillance to include operational research where capacity has been demonstrated.”

(Source: The WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Drug Resistance Surveillance  )

HIV/AIDS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that infects cells of the human immune system and destroys or impairs their function. Infection with this virus results in the progressive depletion of the immune system, leading to immune deficiency.

Immunodeficient people are much more vulnerable to a wide range of infections, most of which are very rare among people without immune deficiency.

AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and describes the collection of symptoms and infections associated with acquired deficiency of the immune system. Infection with HIV has been established as the underlying cause of AIDS. (Source: UNAIDS Fast facts about AIDS   )

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Immune system

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. (Source: NIAID Immune System   )

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Infection

It is the growth of a parasite within the human body that causes illness. It can be a virus, a bacteria, a fungus or a protozoa. (Source: GreenFacts )

Inhalation

The act of breathing.

A hazardous substance can enter the body by inhaling an airborne substance or contaminant in the form of gas, fumes mists, vapors, dusts, or aerosols. Once inhaled, contaminants can be deposited in the lungs and/or transported into the blood. (Source: GreenFacts)

International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD)

"Originally known as the International Union Against Tuberculosis (IUAT), the International Union was founded in Paris in 1920 and officially registered on 13 July 1956. Its denomination was changed on 20 September 1989 to become the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union). The Union has as its mission the prevention and control of tuberculosis and lung disease, as well as related health problems, on a world wide basis, with a particular emphasis on low income countries. Its goal is to promote national autonomy within the framework of the priorities of each country by developing, implementing and assessing anti-tuberculosis and respiratory health programmes.”

(Source: The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease  )

Method validation

Method validation is the process used to confirm that the analytical procedure employed for a specific test is suitable for its intended use. Results from method validation can be used to judge the quality, reliability and consistency of analytical results; it is an integral part of any good analytical practice. (Source: Ludwig Huber, Validation and Qualification in Analytical Laboratories  )

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Population

A group or number of people living within a specified area or sharing similar characteristics (such as occupation or age). (Source: ATSDR Glossary of Terms  )

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Prevalence

The frequency of a disease may be measured in two (standard) ways:

  • Prevalence is the total number of persons known to have had the disease at any time during a specific period. It gives an idea of the importance/burden of disease at a given time, and it is widely used in public health monitoring and planning.
  • Incidence
Pulmonary

Relating to, or associated with the lungs. (Source: GreenFacts)

Sample

A portion or piece of a whole. A selected subset of a population or subset of whatever is being studied. For example, in a study of people the sample is a number of people chosen from a larger population [see population]. An environmental sample (for example, a small amount of soil or water) might be collected to measure contamination in the environment at a specific location. (Source: ATSDR Glossary of Terms   )

Supra-National Reference Laboratories (SNRL)

The objectives of the Supra-National Reference Laboratories (SRLN) are to estimate the magnitude of drug resistance globally, determine trends, provide data to inform policy decisions, evaluate the progress of TB programmes and strengthen laboratory networks. (Source: GreenFacts, based on  WHO/IUATLD Supra-National Reference laboratory network for tuberculosis )

Susceptibility

The likelihood of producing a significantly larger-than-average response to a specified exposure to a substance.

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Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

"Poverty reduction and sustainable development are the principal tasks of the SDC. To facilitate the achievement of these goals, the SDC focuses on various thematic priorities. In each thematic domain, a sub-goal is targeted while ever keeping in mind the fact that the priority themes are intimately linked to one another." (Source: SDC website )

The Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015

“The Global Plan to Stop TB 2006 - 2015 is a comprehensive assessment of the action and resources needed to implement the Stop TB strategy and make an impact on the global TB burden.”

(Source: The Global Plan to Stop TB   )

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium, most commonly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It affects tissues in the human body, mainly the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis). It causes small tumors that destroy the tissue.

Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weight loss, difficulty breathing, and fever. (Source: GreenFacts)

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University of California, San Francisco

"The University of California, San Francisco is the smallest — in size and number of students — of the 10 UC campuses. But its relative size belies its distinction as one of the leading biomedical research and health science education centers in the world."

"The San Francisco campus of the University of California is dedicated to learning and teaching in the health sciences. As a graduate and professional school campus, UCSF serves society through four primary missions: teaching, research, patient care, and public service."

"The Mission of UCSF is to attract and educate the nation's most promising students to future careers in the health sciences and health care professions, with continuing emphasis on open access and diversity; to bring our patients the best in health care service, from primary care to the most advanced technologies available; to encourage and support research and scholarly activities to improve our basic understanding of the mechanisms of disease and the social interactions related to human health; and to serve the community at large through educational and service programs that take advantage of the knowledge and skills of UCSF faculty, staff and students." (Source: UCSF website )

US Center for Disease Control and Prevention

"As the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is recognized as the lead federal agency for protecting the health and safety of people - at home and abroad, providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships. CDC serves as the national focus for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States."

"CDC, located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services." (Source: CDC website )

World Health Organization

"The World Health Organization  (WHO) is the directing and coordinating authority on international health within the United Nations’ system. WHO experts produce health guidelines and standards, and help countries to address public health issues. WHO also supports and promotes health research. Through WHO, governments can jointly tackle global health problems and improve people’s well-being.

193 countries and two associate members are WHO’s membership. They meet every year at the World Health Assembly in Geneva to set policy for the Organization, approve the Organization’s budget, and every five years, to appoint the Director-General. Their work is supported by the 34-member Executive Board, which is elected by the Health Assembly. Six regional committees focus on health matters of a regional nature."

WHO's scientific publications are widely recognized as a reference source.

The WHO has a number of regional offices which address the specific issues of those regions.

WHO World Regional Offices
  WHO African Region  (46 countries)
  WHO European Region  (53 countries)
  WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region  (21 countries)
  WHO Region of the Americas  (35 countries)
  WHO South-East Asia Region  (11 countries)
  WHO Western Pacific Region  (27 countries)

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